From the Smithsonian (Article):
The Smithsonian has a great article reviewing several of the myths and legends of the eclipse, worldwide.
The eclipse is thought to have been caused by “a monster devouring the sun, a punishment from the gods for human errors, and a prelude to apocalypse”.
Cultures world-wide have created mythologies concerning the unusual even, ranging from a bat/jaguar eating the sun to a dragon swallowing it whole.
More at the Smithsonian (Article).